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Erent corner point coordinates are averaged, exploiting translational invariance. This practice is essential to reduce statistical #uctuations to an acceptable level. 3r .  In addition to the potential, breaking of closed strings (torelons) in QCD with sea quarks has been investigated [167,255,248]. 5 standard deviations is not yet entirely convincing. While the situation in the case of interest is not settled yet, toy models have been investigated in three and four space}time dimensions. g. Ref.

Discussed in Refs. [190,191]; while at strong coupling the dynamics is con"ned to the minimal area spanned by a Wilson loop (plus small `bumpsa on top of this surface), as the coupling decreases, the colour "elds between the sources can penetrate over several lattice sites into the vacuum. We would like to remark that the area law of Eq. 24) is a rather general result for strong coupling expansions in the fundamental representation of compact gauge groups. In particular, it also applies to ;(1) gauge theory which we do not expect to con"ne in the continuum.

The number of iterations and represent free parameters which can be varied to optimise the overlap of an operator, constructed from the fat links, with the physical ground state in question. Several variations of the algorithm exist. For example, all links within a given timeslice can be replaced at once or several subgroups can be replaced, subsequently. 1. Smearing, fuzzing can be combined, etc. All smearing and fuzzing methods have in common that the expectation value of a plaquette built from fat spatial links is increased during the iterations, similar to cooling, which means that the contribution to the gauge action from spatial links is reduced: the movement of the magnetic "eld through colour space under a change of the spatial position is minimised.

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Physics Reports vol.343


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