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Additional info for Organic Photovoltaics: Materials, Device Physics, and Manufacturing Technologies
The crystallographic b-axis orients in the longitudinal dimension of the rod . Solution crystallization forming ﬁlterable nanowires has also been proposed . Alternatively, directional crystallization from a crystalline organic template orients p-stacks orthogonal to the long rod axis, with amorphous regions separating domains . It is unclear whether the same assembly model applies in this case. j13 j 1 Regioregular Polythiophene Solar Cells: Material Properties and Performance 14 Macroscopic single domains have not been realized for rr-HTPT.
Further heating expands the stacking distance in the core but does not eliminate crystallinity until melting . A consequence of the two-phase model is that structural changes deriving from both regimes may be noted. In one example, graphs of OPV properties versus temperature show inﬂections near both transition temperatures . Studies on ir-PT ﬁnd that FeCl3 doping raises Tg, possibly increasing organization in the quinoid form, but eliminates distinct melting . Phase separation in blends was studied as a function of alkyl length and %HT [46–48].
XPS depth proﬁling of the ﬁlms revealed sodium contamination of the HT-PHT by up to 1 atom per thiophene ring distributed uniformly through the layer. Auger analysis of the sodium indicated principally Naþ . XPS was used to follow ﬁlm formation as successive layers of HT-PHT were deposited on gold  or HOPG . Band bending, from equilibration of the Fermi energy levels at the interface of both materials, was noted by slight shifting of the C 1s and S 2p orbitals to higher binding energy.
Organic Photovoltaics: Materials, Device Physics, and Manufacturing Technologies by Christoph Brabec, Ullrich Scherf, Vladimir Dyakonov