Organic Photovoltaics: Materials, Device Physics, and by Christoph Brabec, Ullrich Scherf, Vladimir Dyakonov PDF

By Christoph Brabec, Ullrich Scherf, Vladimir Dyakonov

ISBN-10: 3527316752

ISBN-13: 9783527316755

Delivering complementary viewpoints from academia in addition to know-how businesses, this ebook covers the 3 most crucial points of profitable equipment layout: fabrics, gadget physics, and production applied sciences. It additionally bargains an perception into commercialization issues, reminiscent of packaging applied sciences, procedure integration, reel-to-reel huge scale production concerns and construction expenditures. With an creation by way of Nobel Laureate Alan Heeger.

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Additional info for Organic Photovoltaics: Materials, Device Physics, and Manufacturing Technologies

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The crystallographic b-axis orients in the longitudinal dimension of the rod [21]. Solution crystallization forming filterable nanowires has also been proposed [70]. Alternatively, directional crystallization from a crystalline organic template orients p-stacks orthogonal to the long rod axis, with amorphous regions separating domains [22]. It is unclear whether the same assembly model applies in this case. j13 j 1 Regioregular Polythiophene Solar Cells: Material Properties and Performance 14 Macroscopic single domains have not been realized for rr-HTPT.

Further heating expands the stacking distance in the core but does not eliminate crystallinity until melting [43]. A consequence of the two-phase model is that structural changes deriving from both regimes may be noted. In one example, graphs of OPV properties versus temperature show inflections near both transition temperatures [44]. Studies on ir-PT find that FeCl3 doping raises Tg, possibly increasing organization in the quinoid form, but eliminates distinct melting [45]. Phase separation in blends was studied as a function of alkyl length and %HT [46–48].

XPS depth profiling of the films revealed sodium contamination of the HT-PHT by up to 1 atom per thiophene ring distributed uniformly through the layer. Auger analysis of the sodium indicated principally Naþ . XPS was used to follow film formation as successive layers of HT-PHT were deposited on gold [152] or HOPG [153]. Band bending, from equilibration of the Fermi energy levels at the interface of both materials, was noted by slight shifting of the C 1s and S 2p orbitals to higher binding energy.

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Organic Photovoltaics: Materials, Device Physics, and Manufacturing Technologies by Christoph Brabec, Ullrich Scherf, Vladimir Dyakonov

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