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Modes of a lower order (modes with a smaller angle to the fiber axis) become higher-order modes (modes with a larger angle to the fiber axis) after energy transfer. Mode coupling, as this is termed, occurs at points of impurities in the core, at splices, and at sharp bends in the fiber. In modern fibers, it has been possible to reduce mode coupling by increasing the quality of the fiber. The result is a certain neutralization of the time difference δt. This difference does not increase linearly with the length of the fiber but as follows: δt ≈ fiber length ( L ) Formula 4-18 Modal dispersion can be eliminated entirely by reducing the core diameter so that only one mode, the LP01 mode, can propagate in the fiber, a single-mode fiber.

The chromatic disWavelength persion is zero or close to zero at 1310 [µm] nm for a normal single-mode fiber. 7 The minimum attenuation of the fiber Waveguide occurs at around 1550 nm. This has led -10 dispersion to special fibers being manufactured for which the dispersion’s zero crossing is shifted towards higher -20 wavelengths. See also chapter 9. Fig. 4-6 The chromatic dispersion is the sum of material- and waveguide dispersion. > 50 km < 10 km < 1 km Transmission: Well-defined pulses but not absolutely monochromatic.

The intramodal dispersion or chromatic dispersion in a single-mode fiber consists of material dispersion and of waveguide dispersion. Material dispersion and waveguide dispersion tend to cancel each other out in wavelengths close to 1310 nm where the chromatic dispersion is zero. For shorter wavelengths, the chromatic dispersion is negative, and for longer wavelengths, it is positive. Material dispersion can only be changed by varying the composition of the glass in the fiber core and cladding.

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Optical Fiber Theory for Communication Networks

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