By Ivan P. Kaminow, Tingye Li
Quantity IVA is dedicated to growth in optical part learn and improvement. themes comprise layout of optical fiber for a number of functions, plus new fabrics for fiber amplifiers, modulators, optical switches, gentle wave units, lasers, and excessive bit-rate electronics. This quantity is a superb better half to Optical Fiber Telecommunications IVB: structures and Impairments (March 2002, ISBN: 0-12-3951739). - Fourth in a revered and complete sequence - Authoritative authors from a number firms - appropriate for energetic lightwave R&D designers, builders, buyers, operators, scholars, and analysts - Lightwave parts reviewed in quantity A -Lightwave structures and impairments reviewed in quantity B - Up-to-the minute assurance
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Additional info for Optical Fiber Telecommunications IV-A Components
5 and Fig. 6, adds significant cost to the compensation of transmission systems. 18 This approach, however, requires an additional filter to separate the bands on entering and exiting the amplifier sites of Fig. 2, adding up to 3 dB of loss per span. This loss limits route performance according to Eq. 1 and as shown in Fig. 3b. A 3 dB added loss is equivalent to a 3 dB per channel power penalty, which essentially cuts the system reach in half. 5. 2 is the occurrence of nonlinear distortion. Nonlinearities arise since the refractive index of glass varies slightly when exposed to light, causing optical pulses to alter themselves or each other.
10 Calculated signal power vs. span length of various fiber types for a 1450nm pump of 500 mW. 2. Design of Optical Fibers 31 - • — OdBm - • — 3dBm - ± - 4 . 5 dBm - # - 6 dBm - * - 7 . 5 dBm 40 60 80 100 120 Aeff (\im*) Fig. 5 dBm. System simulated is 7 channel x 40 Gbps, 100 GHz spacing, NRZ, 6 x 120 km, nsp = 2 and 500 mW pump. Indicates that the best Q over the greatest range of Pch is associated with moderate Aeff (55-60 ^m 2 ). since the gain of the DR A reduces the need for discrete amplifier gain, which adds much more noise.
The challenge then becomes knowing what fiber type, lengths, and length intervals need to be installed well in advance of system development. At present, fiber design for long-reach, high-capacity systems required for backbone applications, whether terrestrial or undersea, is a careful balancing of fiber properties such as dispersion, dispersion slope, and effective area. Although many design parameters are entailed in defining a system architecture, such as distance between inline amplifiers, use of Raman amplification, number of spans, and modulation format, the overriding goal is to reduce system cost.
Optical Fiber Telecommunications IV-A Components by Ivan P. Kaminow, Tingye Li