By Adel SZ Abadeer
Abadeer comprises casual norms equivalent to faith, mores, myths, taboos, codes-of-conduct, known legislation, and traditions, into the constitution of formal principles (e.g., polity, judiciary, legislation, and the enforcement of law), which in flip impression the governance of the transactions.
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Extra resources for Norms and Gender Discrimination in the Arab World
The “winners” of existing informal rules will prefer the status (staticism), while the victims or “losers” will prefer changing the status quo (dynamism). The tension between staticism and dynamism will determine the stability of the informal institutions. Informal norms should be shared by the members of a given society to establish consistent and expected behavioral patterns. Lack of shared information may expose certain members to unexpected responses or behaviors from other members. In such cases, the process of expectation formation breaks down.
Part III covers some case studies of gender-discriminating norms and practices in the Arab World. Chapter 10 analyzes FGM/C, and the role of norms in sustaining FGM/C in the Arab World. Chapter 11 highlights how prevalent norms are exploited to condone or justify domestic violence against women. Chapter 12 covers the inf luence of discriminating norms in restricting women’s economic rights. Chapter 13 illustrates how discriminating norms restrict and exclude women from specific aspects of the legal and political rights, power, and representation.
PART II Analysis of Norms and Gender Discrimination CHAPTER 2 Institutions and Gender Discrimination I nstitutions are social constructs fashioned by collective human choices. They embody the generally accepted way of thinking and behaving. They are humanly devised constraints that structure human interactions. According to Crawford and Ostrom, “An institution . . is a regular behavior pattern sustained by mutual expectations about the actions that others will take . . The grounds for looking at institutions as norms rest on an assumption that many observed patterns of interaction are based on the shared perceptions among a group of individuals of proper and improper behavior in particular situations”(1995: 583).
Norms and Gender Discrimination in the Arab World by Adel SZ Abadeer