Né en 1928 aux Etats-Unis, Noam Chomsky est probablement l'intellectuel contemporain à l. a. fois le plus célèbre dans le monde et le moins connu en France. Si ses travaux fondateurs en linguistique - il est le père de los angeles «linguistique générative» - sont reconnus, ce n'est pas le cas de son travail d'analyse et d'information politique, pourtant considérable : Chomsky est trop inclassable, trop unique pour faire partie d'une «école», ce que le monde intellectuel français ne lui a jamais pardonné. Cet ouvrage, qui reprend le meilleur du Cahier de L'Herne paru en 2007 sous los angeles path de Jean Bricmont et de Julie Franck, présente une imaginative and prescient d'ensemble de l. a. pensée de Chomsky et rend hommage à l'importance de son oeuvre dans des domaines variés : linguistique théorique, philosophie de l'esprit, neurosciences cognitives, examine de l'idéologie et du pouvoir, liberté d'expression, éthique, motion politique...
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Extra info for Noam Chomsky : Les cahiers de l'Herne n°88
His distinction is not between no cause at all and what then could be a total cause known only in itself, which is precisely the opposition between Socratic ignorance (existence without thought) and Platonic knowledge (thought without existence). The distinction that Spinoza makes between inadequate (partial) cause and adequate cause represents another version of the foundation of prejudice on which, he says, all people agree: namely, that, while we are conscious of the appetite by which we seek our advantage, we are ignorant of the causes by (for) which we seek our advantage.
What is so remarkable about the fundamental presupposition that, Spinoza says, all human beings must accept is that it combines appetite (desire), consciousness, and ignorance in an explosive (dynamic) manner. Because I begin conscious of my appetite in seeking its own advantage, yet ignorant of what it is that constitutes my advantage, I find that I am compelled to transform the contradiction of being conscious of what I do not know—the causes of my appetite—into the paradox of knowing that the true basis (cause) of my utile is other than myself—my relationship to God and neighbor.
For we know that he distinguishes between action and passion, which is not a “natural” (or a finite) distinction. The strange paradox here is that human beings can be known to be subject to the order of common nature—in their impotency and inconstancy they are subject to causes that do not follow from their own nature or essence—because, ultimately, first and last, they are subject to causes that follow from their own nature alone. They are their own standard (as the cause of themselves). Nature—as impotence and inconstancy— is not its own standard.
Noam Chomsky : Les cahiers de l'Herne n°88