By Peter Smith-Keary (auth.)
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Replication commences at many separate initiation points. Lm of fully extended DNA (2) Heterochromatin This does not display the regular cycle of extension and condensation which is shown by euchromatin. There are two types of heterochromatin: constitutive heterochromatin and facultative heterochromatin. Constitutive heterochromatin is relatively highly condensed and darkly staining at all stages of the cell division cycle (but it is less condensed than is euchromatin during cell division). e. genes encoding RNA and proteins) and it may be involved in maintaining the structural integrity of the chromosome.
It appears that histone HI is essential for the maintenance of this second order of organisation. These fibres are too fine to be seen under the light microscope, but, when cells are dividing, the metaphase chromosomes are clearly visible and the chromatin is obviously further compacted. This is achieved by the chromatin becoming organised into a series of large loops, each containing 35-100 kb of DNA, which are attached at their bases to a dense network of non-histone protein fibres called the metaphase scaffold.
The entire nucleoprotein complex is referred to as chromatin. 1). Each nucleosome contains 150-270 bp of DNA. This organisation results in a fibre 10 nm in diameter, and this is now wound in the form of a solenoid to form a 30 nm fibre. 1). (b) The Replication of Eucaryotic DNA In eucaryotic cells the DNA replicates during the preceding interphase and before the chromosomes commence to condense. 3). As the DNA replicates, so it becomes complexed with his tones and organised into nucleosomes. (c) Types of Chromatin Two types of chromatin are found in most eucaryotic chromosomes: (1) Euchromatin In interphase cells this probably exists as extended 30 nm fibres, almost invisible under the light microscope, but as cell division approaches, it becomes highly condensed and deeply staining.
Molecular Genetics by Peter Smith-Keary (auth.)