By Robert Little

ISBN-10: 0824708121

ISBN-13: 9780824708122

Heading off long mathematical discussions, this reference in particular addresses matters affecting the daily practices of these who layout, function, and buy liquid pipelines within the oil, water, and technique industries. Liquid Pipeline Hydraulics offers an abundance of functional examples and functions for an in-depth knowing of liquid homes, in addition to the format, review, and enhancement of potent pipeline structures. the main helpful and reader-friendly reference on hand for engineers considering the optimization of liquid transportation via pipelines

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**Sample text**

736. 729. What is the specific gravity at 50°F? 0007 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. 815 at 70°F, in equal volumes. What will be the specific gravity of the blended mixture? 855 This is indeed the case, since specific gravity of a liquid is simply related to the mass and the volume of each liquid. When two or more liquids are mixed homogeneously, the specific gravity of the resultant liquid can be calculated using the weighted average method. 886 It must be noted that when performing the above calculations, both specific gravities must be measured at the same temperature.

Centrifugal pumps are discussed in Chapter 7. 6 Bulk Modulus The bulk modulus of a liquid is a measure of its compressibility. It is defined as the pressure required to produce a unit change in its volume. 26) where dV is the change in volume corresponding to a change in pressure of dP. The units of bulk modulus, K, are psi or kPa. For most liquids the bulk modulus is approximately in the range of 250,000 to 300,000 psi. The fairly high number demonstrates the incompressibility of liquids. Let us demonstrate the incompressibility of liquids by performing a calculation using bulk modulus.

2 Three liquids A, B, and C are blended together in the ratio of 15%, 20%, and 65% respectively. 4 Viscosity Viscosity is a measure of sliding friction between successive layers of a liquid that flows in a pipeline. Imagine several layers of liquid that constitute a flow between two fixed parallel horizontal plates. A thin layer adjacent to the bottom plate will be at rest or zero velocity. Each subsequent layer above this will have a different velocity compared with the layer below. This variation in the velocity of the liquid layers results in a velocity gradient.

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