Read e-book online Lifelong Education. A Psychological Analysis PDF

By A. J. Cropley

ISBN-10: 0080218148

ISBN-13: 9780080218144

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Extra info for Lifelong Education. A Psychological Analysis

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Role of motivation and attitude Quite apart from the question of whether age-related changes in patterns of intellectual functioning are a result of physiological factors, is the question to what extent such changes also reflect changes in affective variables such as motivation and attitude. In a very early study of intellectual functioning, Galton (1869) emphasized the importance of "zeal" in intellectual performance. Similarly, more recent writers like Cattell (in McLeish, 1963, p. 78) referred to the need for "tenacity" and "enterprise".

Wechsler (1958) found it necessary to distinguish between "hold" abilities, which did not decline markedly with age, and "don't hold" abilities that did. As Tyler (1965, p. 280) has concluded, there is overwhelming evidence that some abilities at least remain stable or even increase up to about age 60. An important recent review of evidence in this area is that of Horn and Donaldson (1976). Although writing from the point of view that the recent tendency has been to underestimate the degree of age-related decrement in intellectual functioning, especially on the part of those with a vested interest (such as writers in the area of lifelong education), they concluded that there is a need for caution in asserting that all intellectual abilities decline with age, that some abilities may not decline at all, and that whatever decline occurs may not commence as early as has been thought to be the case.

The longest period of life by far is the one that commences after formal schooling ends. , the media, peers, the family, the community, and so on). Changed concepts of the relationship between schooling, learning and education are therefore needed. It is apparent, then, that a new conceptualization of the Basic Concepts 35 educational process is emerging. In particular this conceptualization challenges the traditional faith in the primacy of schooling and the relative detachment of schooling from life.

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Lifelong Education. A Psychological Analysis by A. J. Cropley


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