Download e-book for iPad: Landscapes of settlement : prehistory to the present by Brian Roberts

By Brian Roberts

ISBN-10: 020329341X

ISBN-13: 9780203293416

ISBN-10: 0203430727

ISBN-13: 9780203430729

ISBN-10: 0415119677

ISBN-13: 9780415119672

A entire research of the heritage and devel- opment of rural payment in either the constructed and constructing worlds. whole with special case experiences and entirely illustrated, this is often crucial examining for all geographers and archaeologists. publication disguise; identify; Contents; record of plates; record of figures; advent; payment landscapes; Nucleation and dispersion; Explanatory contexts; condo and farmstead; payment varieties; cost styles; payment platforms: an international view; References; Index

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Example text

Peasant agriculture would, at least in good years, generate a surplus of grain and stock, and in western Europe villages seem to have appeared along with feudalism—a society organised so that a mass of peasant farmers supported knights and churchmen. It is possible that most European villages of today occupy sites chosen a thousand years ago, at a time when scattered farmsteads and hamlets were being drawn together. Sometimes this took place on a new site, but often occurred near a long-established hall, for lords needed labour to till their homefarms and sustain revenues.

This is an important point: population density is, theoretically at least, wholly independent of the actual settlement pattern, which may vary between dispersion and nucleation. 2. At the top right the population is concentrated into two clusters—villages—while to the left each family lives in a separate homestead a few hundred metres from its neighbours. This early context, the fifth millennium before Christ, has been chosen deliberately. These first farmers were drawing upon the untapped wealth of soils which had been developing without serious interruption since the disappearance of the ice and the tundra landscapes from all but mountains and the northern fringes of Europe (Champion et al.

Looking carefully, four principal zones may be distinguished: areas wholly devoid of buildings; areas of generally low settlement density, forming a great wedge in the north and east of the country; a southern area where a dense concentration of large nucleations is enhanced by pockets where great numbers of small clusters are also present; a northern and western zone, with patchy concentrations and very mixed character. The empty lands and areas of low settlement density indisputably relate to the presence of coastal mangrove swamps, forest reserves and higher hill masses, but the north and west, a dissected plateau and often difficult of access, has had a long history of inter-tribal warfare.

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Landscapes of settlement : prehistory to the present by Brian Roberts


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