By Gene R. Garthwaite
The Bakhtiyari are some of the most very important nomadic societies within the center East yet even though this tribe has many robust romantic institutions it has additionally been the topic of a lot false impression, even at the present time. This penetrating exam of the Bakhtiyari in Iran explores their robust political and financial position in Iranian society within the 19th and 20th centuries and gives a key to realizing how political energy is created, maintained and misplaced in a tribal society.Based on a rare archive of files now misplaced a result of upheavals of the Iranian Revolution, Khans and Shahs deals an entire photograph of the tribe, putting it within the context of its complete heritage from the 14th century to the current day. between a lot else Gene Garthwaite examines the function of the Bakhtiyari within the exploration and improvement of Iranian oil, which used to be first came upon on their tribal lands through the British entrepreneur William Knox D’Arcy. This ground-breaking research explores the Bakhtiyari's interplay with the nation and the consequences of the broader international on their social and political constitution and gives particular insights right into a complicated yet very important point of Iran’s historical past.
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Additional info for Khans and Shahs: A History of the Bakhtiyari Tribe in Iran
Unless the nomads pushed on through these bottlenecks the resulting congestion exacerbated rivalries and invited raiding. Fodder was also unavailable at the higher elevations, which, once reached, had to be traversed without stopping. In addition to the steep mountain walls) rough terrain, and rudimentary and dangerous trails, the nomads encountered landslides, sudden storms, and dropping temperatures. The Bakhtiyari frequently found snow in the passes through which they had to shovel paths and over which they crossed in their cotton clothing and bare feet (their givah, or traditional shoe, had a compressed cotton~rag sole that would warp and disintegrate if it became wet).
In Ilkhani's time) peoples adjacent to the Bakhtiyariclassified ethnically and regionally - consisted of the Lurs to the north, Arabs to the southwest in Khuzistan, and the Lurs of Kuhgiluyah and the Mamasani and the Buir Ahmadi to the south and southwest. Adjacent to the southeast corner of Bakhtiyari were the summer pastures of the Qashqa'i, perhaps the major threat, apart from the Qajars, to Bakhtiyari hegemony in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Further south and to the east - at least from the late nineteenth century - were the tribes of the Khamsah confederation.
Tribes then form confederations to defend and expand their interests vis-a-vis the state, which itself may vary in the degree of its cohesion and authority. In these circumstances, the traditional, relatively decentralized state government may seek to utilize the power of tribal confederations for its own purposes of reinforcing internal cohesion by recognizing a confederation, or even by creating one. As such a government, however, becomes more centralized, it increasingly regards the existence of tribal confederations, even the ones it fostered, as antithetical to its interests.
Khans and Shahs: A History of the Bakhtiyari Tribe in Iran by Gene R. Garthwaite