By Elizabeth ten Grotenhuis
The 1st extensive research of jap mandalas to seem in a Western language, this quantity translates mandalas as sanctified geographical regions the place id among the human and sacred happens. the writer investigates 8th- to seventeenth-century work from 3 traditions: Esoteric Buddhism, natural Land Buddhism, and the kami-worshipping (Shinto) culture. Explaining why convinced primary eastern mandalas glance the way in which they do and the way definite visible types got here to include the sacred, ten Grotenhuis provides works that convey a fancy mix of Indian Buddhist components, pre-Buddhist chinese language parts, chinese language Buddhist parts, and indigenous eastern components.
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Extra info for Japanese Mandalas: Representations of Sacred Geography
Beings born into the highest level of birth appear again in the central court of the Pure Land, the only devotees born not in the pond of the Pure Land, but on the terrace right in front of the central image of Amida. Those destined for the lower levels of birth are greeted by groups of deities of decreasing number as the births become less exalted. Moving from right to left along this lower horizontal court, the viewer is presented with monoscenic views of the welcoming descent or the returning home (kaeri) raigô (Figure ).
Those who are evil and cannot become virtuous are called xia yu (lower foolish). . Those who are both virtuous and evil are called zhong ren (middle persons). . 49 It should be noted, however, that Ban Gu also drew on a sevenfold ranking system in the Han shu. In his chapter “Yiwen zhi” (Monograph on literature), Ban Gu referred to the earliest bibliography in China, the Seven Summaries. . by Liu Xiang and completed by his son Liu Xin (d. ). 50 The fact that categorizing systems employing numbers of evaluation other than nine existed from early times is signiﬁcant.
The second part was compiled about by an adherent of the Celestial Masters school. 67 Keeping in mind the dissemination in the early ﬁfth century of Daoist texts like the Stanzas of the Vital Spirit of the Nine Heavens, we can return to a discussion of the Visualization Sutra, which is also linked to the early ﬁfth century in that it is believed to have been translated from a lost Sanskrit original in the years between and . What is clear is that the writing of the Visualization Sutra involved many complex negotiations.
Japanese Mandalas: Representations of Sacred Geography by Elizabeth ten Grotenhuis