Download e-book for iPad: Issues and Challenges of Intelligent Systems and by Vesa A. Niskanen (auth.), László T. Kóczy, Claudiu R. Pozna,

By Vesa A. Niskanen (auth.), László T. Kóczy, Claudiu R. Pozna, Janusz Kacprzyk (eds.)

ISBN-10: 3319032054

ISBN-13: 9783319032054

ISBN-10: 3319032062

ISBN-13: 9783319032061

This rigorously edited booklet includes contributions of favourite and lively researchers and students within the greatly perceived sector of clever structures. The publication is exclusive either with admire to the width of assurance of instruments and strategies, and to the diversity of difficulties that may be solved by means of the instruments and strategies awarded. The editors were in a position to assemble a superb number of proper and unique papers by way of favourite representatives of many components, proper either to the speculation and perform of clever platforms, synthetic intelligence, computational intelligence, gentle computing, etc. The contributions were divided into 7 elements offering first extra basic and theoretical contributions, after which purposes in proper areas.

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Issues and Challenges of Intelligent Systems and by Vesa A. Niskanen (auth.), László T. Kóczy, Claudiu R. Pozna, PDF

This rigorously edited ebook comprises contributions of well-known and lively researchers and students within the generally perceived quarter of clever structures. The booklet is exclusive either with recognize to the width of assurance of instruments and methods, and to the range of difficulties which may be solved by means of the instruments and methods awarded.

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3, 5, 11]). Cat bonds were introduced in 1992, and become wider known in April 1997, when USAA, an insurer from Texas, initiated two new classes of cat bonds: A-1 and A-2 (see [10]). e. e. occurrence of some natural catastrophe in specified region and fixed time interval. Such an event is called triggering point (see [5]). For example, the A-1 USAA bond was connected with hurricane on the east coast of USA between July 15, 1997 and December 31, 1997. If there had been a hurricane in mentioned above region with more than $1 billion loses against USAA, the coupon of the bond would have been lost.

Then the α-level set a˜ α is a closed interval, which can be denoted by a˜ α = [a˜ αL , a˜ αU ]. We recall the arithmetic of fuzzy numbers. Let ∩ be a binary operator ≥, , ⊗ or ˜ where the binary operators correspond to ◦: +, between fuzzy numbers a˜ and b, −, × or /, according to the extension principle. Let ∩int be a binary operator ≥int , int , ⊗int or int between two closed intervals [a, b] and [c, d]. Then [a, b] ∩int [c, d] = {z ⊆ R : z = x ◦ y, x ⊆ [a, b], y ⊆ [c, d]}, where ◦ is usual operation +, −, × and /, if the interval [c, d] does not contain zero in the last case.

Let A˜ be a fuzzy subset of the set of real numbers R. We denote by μ A˜ its membership function μ A˜ : R ∅ [0, 1], and by A˜ α = {x : μ A˜ (x) ∗ α} the α-level ˜ where A˜ 0 is the closure of the set {x : μ ˜ (x) > 0}. set of A, A Let a˜ be a fuzzy number (in particular let μa˜ be upper semicontinuous). Then the α-level set a˜ α is a closed interval, which can be denoted by a˜ α = [a˜ αL , a˜ αU ]. We recall the arithmetic of fuzzy numbers. Let ∩ be a binary operator ≥, , ⊗ or ˜ where the binary operators correspond to ◦: +, between fuzzy numbers a˜ and b, −, × or /, according to the extension principle.

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Issues and Challenges of Intelligent Systems and Computational Intelligence by Vesa A. Niskanen (auth.), László T. Kóczy, Claudiu R. Pozna, Janusz Kacprzyk (eds.)


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