By Kumar Ramakrishna
Drawing upon insights from the normal and social sciences, this ebook places forth a provocative new argument that the violent Islamist risk in Indonesia at the present time derives its obdurate resilience from being in essence a posh, adaptive and self-organizing approach – or what a few experts may even name a super-organism. The booklet demanding situations the preferred assumption that ideology is the foundation reason that explains why Indonesian Islamists radicalize into violent extremism. additionally it addresses why regardless of years of excessive defense strength strain, likely disparate militant cells hold ‘popping up’ just like the proverbial hydra - and within the obvious absence of a centralized coordinating physique, however seem to exhibit an natural interconnectivity with each other. Going past normal ideological mantras the booklet argues that clean inter-disciplinary considering is required to deal with the consistently mutating violent Islamist problem in Indonesia, and places forth a entire process for doing so. it is going to be of curiosity to teachers and scholars of terrorism, faith and violence within the Southeast Asian region.
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Extra resources for Islamist Terrorism and Militancy in Indonesia: The Power of the Manichean Mindset
To take a common example, if all fishermen, for instance, showed restraint and limited the number of fish caught, rapidly depleting fishery stocks would be conserved. However, real life demonstrates that the morally upright fisherman all too often loses out to his more selfish peers (Ridley 1997: 56; Shermer 2004: 60). And yet cooperation is rife in nature. Individual Selectionists thus recognized that nature must have found ways to overcome the Prisoner’s Dilemma and foster the cooperation between unrelated organisms that is bountifully evident.
When the danger of being marginalized or even destroyed by an opposing group is collectively perceived to be clear and present, the normally selfish and unrelated individuals within the group might see it as rational to restrain their normal self-seeking impulses. Instead they could, in a display of reciprocal altruism, cooperate to ward off the threat and hence ensure collective survival and ultimately their own genetic proliferation. What is good for the group could be seen as good for the individual.
Because natural selection proceeds glacially – millions of years – there exists an extremely long time lag between the appearance of an adaptive problem and the evolution of an instinct to deal with it. In this regard, since twenty-first-century humanity is separated by less than 10,000 generations from the small group of our common hunter-gatherer ancestors – a blip in evolutionary terms really – then it becomes apparent that there has simply not been enough time for our brains to generate newer instincts that are “well adapted to all aspects of our modern environment” (Waller 2005: 148).
Islamist Terrorism and Militancy in Indonesia: The Power of the Manichean Mindset by Kumar Ramakrishna