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By John Marlowe

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In 1872 Baron Julius de Reuter, a ment of India, for the construction line naturalized British subject, obtained a remarkably comprehensive concession covering the exploitation of all minerals throughout Persia, the establishment of a bank, and the construction of a railway. The Russians soon secured the cancellation of this concession but, by way of compensation, de Reuter was given a new concession for the establishment of a bank, to be called the Imperial Bank of Persia, In 1887, as the result of a rumour that a British firm was about to be given a concession for the construction of a railway from the Persian Gulf to Tehran, the Russians compelled the Persian government to agree not to give any concessions for railway construction in Persia without Russian consent (This agreement prevented any railway construction in Persia world war).

Capitulations', although Ottoman power, to the French government in 1535 by Suleiman the Magnificent in order to facilitate trade between France and the Ottoman Empire had, by the originally granted freely, in the plenitude of nineteenth century, partly because of their abuse by European governments and their nationals, come to be regarded as a serious derogation prestige of the countries by whom they had whom they had been imposed, and were unmistake- from the sovereignty and been granted and on able badges of the subordinate status to which both Persia and the Ottoman Empire had been relegated by the European Powers.

The inhabitants of north-western Persia, after its evacuation by the Turks, and as a result of the ravages of four years and counter-invasion, were starving. broad belt of terri- A of invasion tory between the Mesopotamian border and the Caspian was controlled by the rebel Kuchik Khan whose authority was only mitigated by the presence of a British line of communication across the territory controlled by him. In the rest of the country the only two effective military forces were the Cossack Brigade in the north and the South Persia Rifles Both were under the nominal authority of the Persian government but, in fact, the Cossack Brigade was officered by white Russians who were more interested in fighting the Bolsheviks than in defending Persia while the South Persia Rifles were effectively controlled in the south.

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Iran, A Short Political Guide by John Marlowe

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