By Nadine Barrie Smith, Andrew Webb
Masking the fundamentals of X-rays, CT, puppy, nuclear medication, ultrasound, and MRI, this textbook presents senior undergraduate and starting graduate scholars with a extensive advent to clinical imaging. Over a hundred thirty end-of-chapter workouts are integrated, as well as solved instance difficulties, which allow scholars to grasp the idea in addition to supplying them with the instruments had to clear up more challenging difficulties.
The uncomplicated conception, instrumentation and cutting-edge options and purposes are lined, bringing scholars instantly up to date with fresh advancements, comparable to mixed computed tomography/positron emission tomography, multi-slice CT, 4-dimensional ultrasound, and parallel imaging MR expertise.
Clinical examples supply useful functions of physics and engineering wisdom to drugs. eventually, necessary references to specialized texts, contemporary evaluation articles, and proper clinical journals are supplied on the finish of every bankruptcy, making this an awesome textbook for a one-semester direction in clinical imaging.
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Additional info for Introduction to Medical Imaging: Physics, Engineering and Clinical Applications
The basis of both planar radiography and CT is the differential absorption of X-rays by various tissues. For example, bone and small calcifications absorb Xrays much more effectively than soft tissue. 1(a). X-rays which pass through the patient are detected using a solid-state flat panel detector which is placed just below the patient. The detected X-ray energy is first converted into light, then into a voltage and finally is digitized. The digital image represents a two-dimensional projection of the tissues lying between the X-ray source and the detector.
2 What is the minimum voltage difference that can be measured by a 5 volt, 12-bit ADC? Solution There are 4096 different levels that can be measured by the ADC, with values from 25 to 5 volts (note that the maximum voltage of the ADC refers to positive and negative values). 44 mV. Even ADCs with very high resolution cannot reproduce an analogue signal perfectly. 14. 14, it can also been seen that the values of the quantization error lie between 0 and 6 1/2 of the ADC resolution. e. going above the maximum value of the ADC (which leads to artifacts).
Characteristic lines are seen as sharp lines, superimposed upon a broad energy distribution from general radiation. e. the kVp value. Given the small size of the nucleus in relation to the entire atom, it is much more likely that the electron will undergo only a partial loss of energy, and so a wide spectrum of X-ray energies is produced: this is termed general radiation or bremsstrahlung (braking radiation in German). 6. Sharp peaks are also present in the X-ray energy spectrum, and the energy at which these peaks occur is characteristic of the particular metal used in the anode, hence the name ‘characteristic radiation’.
Introduction to Medical Imaging: Physics, Engineering and Clinical Applications by Nadine Barrie Smith, Andrew Webb