By Robert Bianchi
This e-book exhibits that governmental efforts to extend corporatism within the significant occupational institutions intensified clash in and among socioeconomic sectors, inspired militancy from disaffected crew leaders, and promoted polarization among pluralist and corporatist associations.
Originally released in 1984.
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Extra info for Interest Groups and Political Development in Turkey
Instead of assuming a tendency toward greater group conservatism, he maintains that group activity can suddenly and greatly expand the scope and heighten the intensity of political conflict when previously unrecognized objective interests are perceived and pursued by large stable social categories. " 45 He maintains, however, that they must, first, place greater emphasis on large stable social groups as the main units of analysis and, second, distinguish between changing subjective group goals and enduring objective group interests in substantially improving their social and economic conditions, particularly if such groups have been relatively deprived.
The approach here stands in contrast to that of Durkheim and de Tocqueville by regarding structural differentiation within a liberal democratic political framework as a necessary but not sufficient cause of growing interest conflict and its expression in associational interest groups. Especially since 1950, Turkey's social and economic transformation has often tended to reinforce or widen gaps and inequalities between different economic sectors, social classes, and geographic regions, and this pattern of uneven development has, in turn, produced a heightened perception of interest conflict between various groups and regions competing for larger shares of the benefits of economic growth.
In the tertiary sector trade and transportation showed modest growth, while the services and professions quickly dropped from their wartime high point and remained relatively stable. The rate of occupational differentiation continued to increase after 1960, when centrally planned economic development was introduced, especially during the period of Justice Party rule, from 1965 to 1971. Yet the volume of new employment created during Turkey's first two Five-Year Plans was consistently below the rather modest targets, and the pattern of occupational diversification took a very different direction from what had been intended.
Interest Groups and Political Development in Turkey by Robert Bianchi