By Gérard Battail (auth.)
Communication, essentially the most vital services of lifestyles, happens at any spatial scale from the molecular one as much as that of populations and ecosystems, and any time scale from that of quick chemical reactions as much as that of geological a while. info concept, a mathematical technological know-how of verbal exchange initiated via Shannon in 1948, has been very profitable in engineering, yet biologists forget about it.
This e-book goals at bridging this hole. It proposes an summary definition of knowledge in line with the engineers' event which makes it usable in existence sciences. It expounds details thought and error-correcting codes, its by-products, as easily as attainable. Then, the basic organic challenge of heredity is tested. it's proven that biology doesn't appropriately account for the conservation of genomes in the course of geological a while, which might be understood provided that it really is assumed that genomes are made resilient to informal mistakes by means of right coding. in addition, the nice conservation of very previous components of genomes, just like the HOX genes, means that the assumed genomic codes have a nested constitution which makes a knowledge the extra resilient to blunders, the older it is.
The outcomes that details idea attracts from those hypotheses meet very easy yet but unexplained organic proof, e.g., the lifestyles of successive generations, that of discrete species and the fashion of evolution in the direction of complexity. Being inevitably inscribed on actual media, details appears to be like as a bridge among the summary and the concrete. Recording, speaking and utilizing info completely ensue within the dwelling global. info is hence coextensive with existence and delineates the border among the dwelling and the inanimate.
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Extra resources for Information and Life
A numeration system associates with it a unique sequence of digits. Being the science of sequences, information theory may be thought of as the science of nominable entities. More precisely, we defined above an information as an equivalence class of sequences, and it is such a class which possesses the property of uniqueness. We may thus interpret an information, defined as an equivalence class of sequences, as a nominable entity in Barbieri’s meaning. Indeed, the concept of nominable entity matches the attempted definition of an information outlined above (Sects.
1. 4) the integration being effected on the whole interval where the functions f (t) and g(t) are defined. The squared norm of a signal as defined above is thus its scalar product by itself. The two signal shapes u(t) and v(t) defined above have been chosen mutually ‘orthogonal’, meaning that (u · v) = u(t)v(t)dt = 0. 5) Being both normalized and orthogonal, such functions are often referred to as orthonormal. The signals contemplated up to now are generally not directly transmitted. They are most often used in order to modulate some ‘carrier’ wave which possesses the propagation properties necessary for transporting a sequence of symbols up to the intended destination (see Sect.
Then the concatenation reflects a hierarchical taxonomy. A musical theme is another example of a nominable entity, all the more interesting since no semantic content is generally associated with it (if we except Wagner’s Leitmotive). Nominable entities are rather foreign to the usual practice of science, at least if physics is taken as reference. A physical measurement, for instance, consists of assessing some physical quantity by means of an experimental apparatus. Except if it consists of counting objects and thus results in an integer, a measurement provides a number of a quite different kind, said ‘real’ in the mathematical meaning of the word, which however may be somewhat misleading (see Sect.
Information and Life by Gérard Battail (auth.)