By Gary E. Varner
This booklet deals a robust reaction to what Varner calls the "two dogmas of environmental ethics"--the assumptions that animal rights philosophies and anthropocentric perspectives are every one antithetical to sound environmental coverage. permitting that each residing organism has pursuits which ought, different issues being equivalent, to be secure, Varner contends that a few pursuits take precedence over others. He defends either a sentientist precept giving precedence to the lives of organisms with wide awake wants and an anthropocentric precept giving precedence to definite very inclusive pursuits which in basic terms people have. He then exhibits that those rules not just comport with yet supply major aid for environmental targets.
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Extra resources for In Nature's Interests?: Interests, Animal Rights, and Environmental Ethics (Environmental Ethics and Science Policy)
If the "health" of an ecosystem consists in its capacity for self-renewal, and a broad range of things (including sand heaps) have the capacity for self-renewal, why should we think that the "health" of an ecosystem is really health, in any morally significant sense? Obviously, if we value ecosystems for certain services they provide, then the capacity for self-renewal is instrumentally valuable. However, Callicott's claim is that ecosystems carry intrinsic value, not just instrumental value, and it is not clear why the capacity for self-renewal would by itself carry intrinsic value.
Most of the chapters have benefited from being presented in whole or in part to philosophy departments or conferences. Parts of chapter 1 were presented to the Mountains-Plains Philosophical Association's annual meeting (October 1991) and to the International Society for Environmental Ethics (December 1991) under the titles "No Sympathy for Systems: Humean-Smithian Moral Psychology and the Foundations of the Leopold Land Ethic" and "A Critique of Environmental Holism," respectively. Versions of chapter 2 were presented to the Illinois Philosophical Association's annual meeting (October 1987) and to the philosophy departments at Washington University in St.
I will focus primarily on the views of J. Baird Callicott, for several reasons. First, Callicott has emerged as the leading philosophical interpreter of Leopold's widely influential land ethic. Second, Callicott's work is in two ways paradigmatic of the holistic tradition in environmental ethics. He effectively identifies environmental ethics with holism by characterizing the holistic Leopold land ethic as "the exemplary type" in an ostensive definition of environmental ethics (1980, p. 311). And Callicott explicitly claims that the holistic dimension of the Leopold land ethic is what makes it an appropriate ethical foundation for sound environmental policy.
In Nature's Interests?: Interests, Animal Rights, and Environmental Ethics (Environmental Ethics and Science Policy) by Gary E. Varner