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Extra info for Guidelines for Design of Structures for Vertical Evacuation from Tsunamis
Damage to structural elements of non-engineered reinforced concrete buildings was attributed to impact from such debris (Figure 2-17). Examples are also evident where debris damming resulted in damage to structural members (Figure 2-18). An example of observed scour below a shallow foundation is shown in Figure 2-19. From a review of available data taken by various survey teams, it appears that the maximum scour depth measured onshore was 3m in Khao Lak, Thailand. 20 2: Background FEMA P646 Figure 2-15 Example of surviving reinforced concrete mosque in Uleele, Banda Aceh (Photo courtesy J.
3: Tsunami Hazard Assessment FEMA P646 In the joint NOAA/USGS/FEMA Seaside, Oregon Tsunami Pilot Study (Tsunami Pilot Study Working Group, 2006), USGS and academic colleagues developed a database of near- and far-field tsunami sources associated with a specified probability of occurrence, while NOAA developed a corresponding database of inundation model results based on the sources. The resulting PTHA methodology integrates hydrodynamics, geophysics, and probability theory to meet specific FEMA actuarial needs, and now represents the current state of the art in tsunami hazard assessment for emergency management and engineering design.
While observations from past tsunamis show that certain types of construction are largely destroyed by high-velocity water flow, there is much evidence that appropriately designed structural systems can survive tsunami inundation with little more than nonstructural damage in the lower levels, and can continue to support the levels of a building above the flood depth. This enables consideration of vertical evacuation as a viable alternative when horizontal evacuation out of the inundation zone is not feasible.
Guidelines for Design of Structures for Vertical Evacuation from Tsunamis by FEMA