Read e-book online Fundamentals of engineering. Supplied reference handbook for PDF

This can be the respectable and merely reference that you'll be accepted to exploit through the FE examination. you want to familiarize yourself with the association of equations and knowledge during this guide, so that you can paintings successfully through the examination.

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Humidity Volume: Volume of moist air/mass of dry air. Mole Fraction: Ni = number of moles of component i. Psychrometric Chart A plot of specific humidity as a function of dry-bulb temperature plotted for a value of atmospheric pressure. ) xi = Ni /N; N = Σ Ni; Σ xi = 1 Mass Fraction: yi = mi/m; m = Σ mi; Σ yi = 1 Molecular Weight: M = m/N = Σ xiMi PHASE RELATIONS Clapeyron Equation for Phase Transitions: Gas Constant: R = R / M To convert mole fractions to mass fractions: h fg s fg æ dp ö , where = ç ÷ = è dT ø sat Tv fg v fg xi M i yi = å ( xi M i ) To convert mass fractions to mole fractions: yi M i xi = å ( yi M i ) Partial Pressures m RT p = å pi ; pi = i i V Partial Volumes V = å Vi ; Vi = p, V, T hfg = enthalpy change for phase transitions, vfg = volume change, sfg = entropy change, T absolute temperature, and = (dP/dT)sat = slope of vapor-liquid saturation line.

The efficiency η of a heat engine is given by: η = w/QH = (QH – QL)/QH Other Properties u = Σ (yiui); h = Σ (yihi); s = Σ (yisi) ui and hi are evaluated at T, and si is evaluated at T and pi. PSYCHROMETRICS We deal here with a mixture of dry air (subscript a) and water vapor (subscript v): The most efficient engine possible is the Carnot Cycle. Its efficiency is given by: ηc = (TH – TL)/TH, where p = pa + pv TH and TL = absolute temperatures (Kelvin or Rankine). Specific Humidity (absolute humidity) ω: The following heat-engine cycles are plotted on P-v and T-s diagrams (see page 52): ω = mv /ma, where Carnot, Otto, Rankine Refrigeration Cycles are the reverse of heat-engine cycles.

N æ 3n + 1 ö (n−1) Kç ÷ 8 è 4n ø the mass density, , where D = the diameter of the pipe or dimension of the fluid streamline, µ = the dynamic viscosity, v = the kinematic viscosity, Re = the Reynolds number (Newtonian fluid), R e′ = the Reynolds number (Power law fluid), and K and n are defined on page 38. The critical Reynolds number (Re)c is defined to be the minimum Reynolds number at which a flow will turn turbulent. Hydraulic Gradient (Grade Line) The hydraulic gradient (grade line) is defined as an imaginary line above a pipe so that the vertical distance from the pipe axis to the line represents the pressure head at that point.

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