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By I. K Kikoin

ISBN-10: 5030005323

ISBN-13: 9785030005324

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We started work in Leningrad and only in 1936, when the Institute’s building was constructed, did we move to Sverdlovsk. Now the Institute of Physics of Metals (it was called the Ural Physico-Technical Insti- The Advance of Soviet Physics 49 tute) is one of the largest physics establishments in the USSR. It is administered by the well-known theoretical physicist Academician Sergei Vonsovsky, who had graduated from university and started work at. the Institute when it was set up. In the late 1920s and early 1930s, physics in the Soviet Union was being pursued extensively, and the number of scientilic associates grew rapidly.

The torsional vibrations of the disc about the axis passing through the string were observed. Naturally the vibrations are damped quicker in more viscous liquids. The two methods gave the same values of viscosity for every liquid, except helium II. The first technique yielded a vanishingly small viscosity, thus confirming the superfluidity of helium II, while the second yielded a small but measurable value. All this was explained by the hydrodynamic theory of superfluidity formulated by Academician Lev Landau in 1941.

From the very beginning, a curious phenomenon interfered with our measurements of the Hall electromotive force. When a sample in a magnetic field was illuminated, a potential difference developed between points A and A' even if no current flowed through the sample (the experimental setup is shown in Fig. 3). To get rid of this spurious effect, we illuminated the plate of cuprous oxide by red light instead of The Advance oi Soviet Physics 37 white light (cuprous oxide is a red transparent crystal).

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Encounters with physicists and physics (Science for Everyone) by I. K Kikoin

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