Read e-book online Embedded Controller Hardware Design PDF

By Ken Arnold

ISBN-10: 1878707523

ISBN-13: 9781878707529

Ken Arnold is an skilled embedded platforms fashion designer and president of HiTech gear, Inc., an embedded structures layout company situated in San Diego, California. He additionally teaches classes in embedded and software program layout on the college of California-San Diego. supplies the reader an built-in hardware/software method of embedded controller layout Stresses a "worst case" layout strategy for the cruel environments within which embedded structures are frequently used contains layout examples to make vital thoughts come alive

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The POP instruction takes the data at the top of the stack and copies it to the internal RAM location specified in the POP instruction. After copying the data, the SP is decremented by 1. The SP register in the 8051/52 is therefore a pre-increment, post-decrement register. In the 8051, which contains 128 bytes of internal data RAM, the maximum legal value that the SP register may contain is 07Fh. The 8052 has an additional 128 bytes of internal RAM, separate from the special function registers.

Unfortunately, in most Harvard architecture machines, the memory is connected to the CPU using a bus that limits the parallelism to a single bus. The memory separation is still used to advantage in microcontrollers, as the program is usually stored in non-volatile memory (program is not lost when power is removed), and the temporary data storage is in volatile memory. Non-volatile memories, such as read-only memory (ROM) are used in both types of systems to store permanent programs. In a desktop PC, ROMs are used to store just the start-up or bootstrap programs and hardware specific programs.

The SFRs are not part of the upper 128 bytes of internal RAM—they are a separate memory space. Very often, an embedded system will require a much larger amount of RAM than is present on an 8051 or 8052 microcontroller. When this is the case, one generally uses external RAM chips that are interfaced to the processor over the address, data, and control bus structure. Since the address bus of the 8051/52 microcontroller family is 16 bits wide, a total of 64 kilobytes of either program memory or data memory may be accessed.

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Embedded Controller Hardware Design by Ken Arnold

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