By Wendy N. Erber
The analysis and tracking of hematological malignancies is complicated and calls for a scientific process. Morphology, mobile phenotyping, cytogenetics and molecular genetics are crucial, and the implications has to be built-in. Diagnostic thoughts in Hematological Malignancies info the rules and functions of every of those try out forms within the analysis of hematological malignancies in blood and bone marrow. the 1st part describes the try out modalities - together with methodological rules, info interpretation and boundaries - and is illustrated through medical examples. the second one part specializes in the scientific entities, detailing the main applicable exams for prognosis, staging and tracking of alternative hematological malignancies and comprises try usage to spot prognostic markers and power healing goals. With contributions from a number of foreign specialists, this illustrated publication is a vital source for certified and trainee hematologists, oncologists, and pathologists. it is a useful and worthy consultant, delivering a rational and dependent method of the laboratory evaluate of hematological malignancies.
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Extra resources for Diagnostic Techniques in Hematological Malignancies 1st edition 2010
E. ﬂow cytometry and immunocytochemistry). 5. Cytochemical stains that can be used for the assessment of hematological malignancies [13,14]. Substrate type Cytochemical test Cellular component Cell type Hematological malignancy NonEnzyme Perls’ Prussian Blue Iron (ferric) Macrophages Late normoblasts Periodic acidSchiff Carbohydrate Granulocytes Iron status of all disorders Myelodysplastic syndromes Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative neoplasms Precursor lymphoid neoplasms (block positivity) Erythroleukemia Plasma cell myeloma Megakaryocytes Plasma cells Enzyme Sudan Black B Lipid Myeloid cells Acute myeloid leukemias (granulocytic differentiation) Oil Red O Lipid Neoplastic B-cells Burkitt lymphoma Toluidine Blue Metachromasia Basophils Mast cells Systemic mastocytosis Chronic myelogenous leukemia (basophils positive) Alkaline phosphatase Neutrophil alkaline phosphatase Neutrophils (Score 0–400) Polycythemia vera (high score) Chronic myelogenous leukemia (low score) Acid phosphatase Lysosomes Majority of normal hematopoietic cells T-lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma Mature T-cell neoplasms Hairy cell leukemia (resistant to tartrate) Non-speciﬁc esterases α-naphthyl acetate esterase Monocytes (diffuse) Macrophages Lymphocytes (dot) Acute monocytic and myelomonocytic leukemia Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia Speciﬁc esterases Chloroacetate esterase Neutrophils Acute myeloid leukemias (granulocytic differentiation) Systemic mastocytosis Lysozyme Lysozyme (muramidase) Myeloperoxidase Primary granules Myeloid cells Acute myeloid leukemias (granulocytic differentiation) Sudan Black B Myeloid cell granules Myeloid cells Eosinophils Acute myeloid leukemia Mast cells Monocytes Macrophages Acute monocytic and myelomonocytic leukemia Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia 17 1 Diagnostic techniques cytochemistry.
There are a number of CD158 isoforms and restricted expression of one of these, or total lack of KIR antigens, are surrogates for NK-cell clonality (see Chapter 10) [5,6]. T-cell-associated CD2 and CD7 antigens, and both the ε and δ chains of the CD3 molecule, are also expressed by NK-cells. Surface CD3 is not expressed by NK-cells and the T-cell receptor is in germline conﬁguration, enabling NK-cells to be distinguished from T-cells by both phenotype and genotype. 3). As maturation proceeds, the differentiating cells lose CD34 and CD38 antigens and acquire lineageassociated antigens.
Only the Perls’ Prussian Blue reaction which utilizes potassium ferrocyanide to demonstrate ferric tissue iron, remains in common use. This is an important test of iron status and iron incorporation into developing erythroblasts; as such it should be performed in the initial assessment of hematological malignancies. For a full description of the principles and methods of cytochemical stains the reader is referred to other monographs [13–14]. Interpretation and reporting the bone marrow aspirate The blood count and ﬁlm should always be reviewed together with the bone marrow aspirate and the ﬁndings included in the marrow report.
Diagnostic Techniques in Hematological Malignancies 1st edition 2010 by Wendy N. Erber