By C.M. King
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Extra info for Design of Steel Portal Frames for Europe
2 Column, rafter and haunch bracing The columns and rafters (and sometimes the haunches) will normally require intermediate restraint to the compression flanges. The outer flange is easily restrained by the cladding, especially if purlins and sheeting rails are used. The inner flange is also relatively easy to restrain where purlins or sheeting rails are used. 4. These diagonal members are designed only to carry the appropriate component on the lateral restraint force. Where purlins and bracing are not used or are insufficient, independent bracing must be provided, for example by tubes in the plane of the bottom flange connected to plan bracing.
However, only the least favourable combination of loads should be considered. g. by the effects of uplift suctions, the combination without wind must be verified. • Frame imperfection equivalent horizontal forces must be considered in the least favourable direction with respect to each load combination. Note: The principal differences between current UK terminology and practice (essentially to BS 5950) and that in ENV 1993—1—1 are given in Appendix K. 2 Actions (loads) Shortly, there will be European loading specifications in Eurocode 1.
For computer analysis, it is convenient to increase the partial safety factor on the loads by multiplying by 1/(1V /l'r).
Design of Steel Portal Frames for Europe by C.M. King