By Gérard Govaert
The 1st a part of this booklet is dedicated to equipment looking suitable dimensions of information. The variables hence acquired offer an artificial description which frequently leads to a graphical illustration of the information. After a common presentation of the discriminating research, the second one half is dedicated to clustering equipment which represent one other technique, frequently complementary to the tools defined within the first half, to synthesize and to investigate the information. The booklet concludes by way of interpreting the hyperlinks present among information mining and knowledge research.
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Extra info for Data Analysis (Digital Signal and Image Processing)
5. 1. Introduction Online statistical process control is essentially based on control charts for measurements, drawing the evolution of a product or process characteristics. A control chart is a tool which allows a shift of a location (mean) or a dispersion (standard deviation, range) parameter regarding ﬁxed standard or nominal values to be detected through successive small samples (xi , i = 1, 2, . . , n). Several types of control charts exist [MON 85, NIA 94], all based on the assumption that the distribution of xi is N (μ0 , σ0 ).
CA is a descriptive method, which yields only the intensity and the nature of the relationship between two variables. 5. Two clouds Each row is a point in a space, denoted RJ , whose dimension is associated with a column of the table X. 2). The weight fi. is assigned to the row i. The center of gravity of NI therefore lies in the origin of the axes ( i fi. xij = 0 ∀j). It corresponds to the average row proﬁle (calculated from the n individuals). 2. j is assigned to the column j; the cloud NJ is centered and the origin corresponds to the average column proﬁle.
Nj This transformation, designed for a contingency table, does not seem very natural. e. taking into account weights and metrics. The cloud of the individuals NI lies in the space RJ provided by the diagonal metric (denoted DJ ) with nj /nQ as general term. The individual i has the weight 1/n. The origin, centre of gravity of the cloud NI , corresponds to a ﬁctitious individual who could choose, for each question, all the categories of answer (each with a weight equal to its frequency within the n studied individuals).
Data Analysis (Digital Signal and Image Processing) by Gérard Govaert