By Geert Hofstede
Geert Hofstede has thoroughly rewritten, revised and up-to-date Culture's results for the twenty-first century, he has broadened the book's cross-disciplinary attraction, accelerated the insurance of nations tested from forty to greater than 50, reformulated his arguments and a large number of new literature has been integrated. The publication is dependent round 5 significant dimensions: energy distance; uncertainty avoidance; individualism as opposed to collectivism; masculinity as opposed to femininity; and long-term as opposed to momentary orientation.
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Additional resources for Culture’s Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations
3 refers to norms of value. We can speak of norms as soon as we deal with a collectivity. In the case of the desired, the norm is statistical: It indicates the values actually held by the majority. In the case of the desirable, the norm is absolute or deontological (pertaining to what is ethically right). The desired relates more to pragmatic issues; the desirable, to ideology. 3 should be seen as probabilistic, not rigid. For example, we may approve with deeds rather than words, or what is desired may never become expressed in deeds.
Highlighting culture-dependent differences in thinking and acting is not always a welcome intervention. My general experience in discussing the topics of this book with various audiences is that the amount of international exposure within the group strongly affects the way the subject is received. Internationally experienced audiences have little trouble seeing its importance and tolerating a certain amount of introspection into their own cultural constraints. Internationally naive audiences have difficulty seeing the points, and some members even feel insulted when their own culture is discussed.
1 Values and Culture Summary of This Chapter This introductory chapter deals with the definition and measurement of mental programs in people in general, and values and culture in particular. Mental programs can be found at the universal, collective, and individual levels. In this chapter, I discuss four different strategies by which they can be measured. Values can refer to the desired or to the desirable, and the two are not equivalent. Culture is defined as collective programming of the mind; it manifests itself not only in values, but in more superficial ways: in symbols, heroes, and rituals.
Culture’s Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations by Geert Hofstede