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Extra info for Contrastive linguistics : prospects and problems

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Wadze Tomka. ' This type of construction is similar to Type I except that it additionally involves a dummy pronoun si§. This pronoun is the head of a copy arc which is cosponsored by an initial 2 arc and its 1 arc local successor, its R-sign being 2. However, since s/'f is totally immune to any test for final 2-hood, which is not the case with its full-fledged counterpart siebie, it seems reasonable to assume that any type of construction involving is an antipassive construction. In the light of the evidence for the well-formedness of antipassive constructions in Polish, this solution has some initial plausibility.

Or do they reflect some kind of psychological reality or psychological markedness, or are they founded on statistical counts which identifies 'basic' with 'most frequent'? A fundamental query about word-order typologies relates to variation. If a language always arranges its elements in the same order, well and good. But in fact languages use numerous alternative word-order patterns. To begin with, even languages whose word-order mechanisms serve largely syntactic ends ('analytic' languages such as Modern English) allow more variation than we often realize.

7 To begin with, let us consider the following examples of action nominalizations in Polish: (42) bieganie Janka (running GEN) 'Janek's running' (43) czytanie ksi^zki (reading book/GEN) 'the reading of a book' Inversion/conjunct ascension in Polish and English 31 (44) istnienie Boga (existence God/GEN) 'the existence of God' It follows from the above data that the genitive case marking is assigned to heads of final absolutive arcs in action nominalizations. Surprisingly, what seems to be the head of a final ergative arc in the examples below is likewise marked with the genitive case.

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Contrastive linguistics : prospects and problems by Jacek Fisiak

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