Download PDF by Isaiah Berlin, Henry Hardy, Bernard Williams, Alasdair: Concepts and Categories: Philosophical Essays, Second

By Isaiah Berlin, Henry Hardy, Bernard Williams, Alasdair MacIntyre

ISBN-10: 0691157499

ISBN-13: 9780691157498

"The objective of philosophy is usually an analogous, to aid males to appreciate themselves and hence to function within the open, no longer wildly within the dark."--Isaiah Berlin

This quantity of Isaiah Berlin's essays offers the sweep of his contributions to philosophy from his early participation within the debates surrounding logical positivism to his later paintings, which extra obviously displays his life-long curiosity in political conception, the background of rules, and the philosophy of heritage. right here Berlin describes his view of the character of philosophy, and of its major activity: to discover many of the versions and presuppositions--the ideas and categories--that males deliver to their life and that aid shape that life. all through, his writing is knowledgeable by way of his extreme recognition of the plurality of values, the character of old realizing, and of the fragility of human freedom within the face of inflexible dogma.

This re-creation provides a couple of formerly uncollected items that throw extra mild on Berlin's vital philosophical matters, and a revealing alternate of letters with the editor and Bernard Williams in regards to the genesis of the book.

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Additional info for Concepts and Categories: Philosophical Essays, Second edition

Example text

The logically possible is conceived only by analogy with it; sentences which purport to refer to something outside this are therefore meaningless. If nevertheless I claim that they mean something to me, I am using the term ‘meaning’ ambiguously or loosely; I may wish to say that they suggest, or are evidence for, a situation, without formally describing it, as tears are evidence of distress without being a statement about it; or else that they evoke an emotion in me, convey or induce a mood or an attitude, stimulate behaviour, or even that no more is occurring than that I am acquainted with the normal use of the individual words in the sentences to which I attribute meaning and that they are grouped in accordance with the rules of grammar and of logic, as in certain types of nonsense verse.

Moreover, by ‘verifiability’ what is meant is verifiability not in practice but in principle; this last being needed to eliminate not only the objection that some propositions, for example that there are mountains on the other side of the moon, are clearly significant and yet cannot be verified on account of technical difficulties which observers with more luck and skill than ourselves might overcome, but to secure plausible analyses of propositions about the past, which we are prevented from verifying by the accident of our position in time as well as space.

A stricter criterion of significance seemed therefore to be required, at any rate in the case of propositions claiming to describe experience. To supply it (I do not vouch for the historical accuracy of this account) the principle of verification was adopted, a test which, so it is claimed, made it possible to determine without further ado whether a given collocation of words was or was not significant in the above sense. ’ were logically equivalent – the answer to one was the answer to the other.

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Concepts and Categories: Philosophical Essays, Second edition by Isaiah Berlin, Henry Hardy, Bernard Williams, Alasdair MacIntyre

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