By Ronald W. Langacker
This ebook fills a longstanding desire for a simple creation to Cognitive Grammar that's present, authoritative, entire, and approachable. It offers a synthesis that attracts jointly and refines the descriptive and theoretical notions built during this framework over the process 3 a long time. In a unified demeanour, it incorporates either the conceptual and the social-interactive foundation of linguistic constitution, in addition to the necessity for either useful clarification and particular structural description. beginning with the basics, crucial facets of the speculation are systematically laid out with concrete illustrations and cautious dialogue in their intent. one of the issues surveyed are conceptual semantics, grammatical sessions, grammatical buildings, the lexicon-grammar continuum characterised as assemblies of symbolic constructions (form-meaning pairings), and the usage-based account of productiveness, regulations, and well-formedness. The theory's relevant declare - that grammar is inherently significant - is thereby proven to be workable. The framework is extra elucidated via program to nominal constitution, clause constitution, and intricate sentences. those are tested in large standpoint, with exemplification from English and diverse different languages. in keeping with the theory's basic ideas, they're mentioned not just when it comes to their structural characterization, but in addition their conceptual worth and practical motivation. different issues explored comprise discourse, the temporal measurement of language constitution, and what grammar unearths approximately cognitive strategies and the development of our psychological global.
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Additional resources for Cognitive Grammar: An Introduction
A stock example is keep tabs on: (4) (a) The police kept tabs on all the leading activists. (b) Tabs were kept by the police on all the leading activists. The point is still more evident if we discard the requirement of semantic irregularity (which, in any case, is a matter of degree) and simply deﬁne lexicon as the set of ﬁxed expressions in a language. Becoming a ﬂuent speaker involves learning an enormous inventory of expressions larger than words, representing usual ways of conveying certain notions.
What are its general nature and speciﬁc properties? How do we go about investigating it? How can we describe it? At present there are no deﬁnitive answers to such questions. Considerable progress is, however, being made in cognitive linguistics, in the broader context of cognitive science. I would argue that CG embodies a coherent and plausible view of conceptualization, allowing a principled basis for characterizing many facets of semantic and grammatical structure. Ultimately, conceptualization resides in cognitive processing.
Contrast, boundary, change, continuity, contact, inclusion, separation, proximity, multiplicity, group, and point vs. extension. Being abstract and applicable to most any domain, these come closest to the apparent spirit of image schemas. 3. Some notions commonly cited as image schemas fall instead in my third class, conceptual archetypes. These are experientially grounded concepts so frequent and fundamental in our everyday life that the label archetype does not seem inappropriate. Here are some examples: a physical object, an object in a location, an object moving through space, the human body, the human face, a whole and its parts, a 34 PRELIMINARIES physical container and its contents, seeing something, holding something, handing something to someone, exerting force to effect a desired change, a face-to-face social encounter.
Cognitive Grammar: An Introduction by Ronald W. Langacker