By L Hamill
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Additional resources for Bridge hydraulics
To avoid this the waterway must be made large enough to pass the design discharge with floodplain storage kept below the critical value or, alternatively, the approach embankments should be designed to allow excess flow to pass over them (see Chapter 6). Just how much backwater can be tolerated from a bridge depends upon factors such as the frequency of flooding and the local land use: different values will be adopted for city centres and open farmland. However, there is another consideration, which is the relationship between the backwater and the velocity of flow through the waterway opening.
WSPRO) assume that section 4 is one span (b) downstream, so there are many variations. However, for consistency it is always assumed in this book that section 4 is far enough downstream for normal depth conditions to have been re-established and for the flow to be unaffected by the bridge. Downstream of the structure there is a large zone of separation (Fig. 2b). In all of the zones of separation eddying occurs between the live stream and the side of the channel, but this can be very pronounced downstream of the opening.
Training works are usually expensive to Page 22 Fig. 13 Axe Bridge, Colyford, Devon, illustrating the problem of lateral shifting of the channel and route selection. The meander (bottom centre) looks as though it will be cut off at some time, possibly within the life of the bridge. When this happens the reduced channel length could increase velocities and cause degradation (see Fig. 8). An old ox-bow can be seen on the left. (Reproduced by permission of Devon Library Service) construct and maintain, so the aim should be to minimise such works by using any natural rock outcrops or other permanent controls, locating the crossing at a node that forms the crossover point in a sinusoidal meander, or possibly constructing the crossing at a bend if this is the only relatively stable feature.
Bridge hydraulics by L Hamill