By Janice Joseph
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Extra resources for Black Youths, Delinquency, and Juvenile Justice
Therefore, in 1991, African Americans earned 79% of what white Americans earned. S. Department of Commerce, 1993). In 1992, the median income was $22,942 for African-American male compared to $31,737 for white Americans. The difference was $8,795, with African American males earning 72 cents on the dollar earned by white American males. S. Department of Commerce, 1993). In the first three quarters of 1992, the employment rate for African-American youths 16 to 19 years of age was 23 % compared to 45% for White Americans.
Black migration to the cities has resulted in a high concentration of blacks in several large cities. By 1990, half of America's ten largest cities had elected black mayors. In 1989, the first black governor was elected in the state of Virginia. The increase in the number of black officials may signify increased political power for blacks, but a more critical examination of these political positions reveals that "real" political power continues to elude them. 3% of all elected officials (Joint Center for Political Studies, 1988).
S. Department of Commerce, 1991). 4. The table shows that, although the ratio of black children to white children living in poverty over the past twenty years has decreased, the ratio remains high. The increasing number of unemployed and unemployable black youths in urban areas has created an underclass and an illegal economy dominated by drugs, gambling, violence and gangs. To put things in perspective, as of 1991, two out of three black children living in female-based households were poor, and the average black child could expect to remain poor for about twenty years (American Public Welfare Association, 1986).
Black Youths, Delinquency, and Juvenile Justice by Janice Joseph