Download e-book for kindle: Bioinformatics: An Introduction by Jeremy J. Ramsden (auth.)

By Jeremy J. Ramsden (auth.)

ISBN-10: 1402029500

ISBN-13: 9781402029509

ISBN-10: 9401570965

ISBN-13: 9789401570961

An advent to Bioinformatics is meant to be a whole research significant other for the complicated undergraduate or starting graduate pupil. it's self-contained within the feel that regardless of the place to begin might be, the reader will achieve perception into bioinformatics. Underlying the paintings is the assumption that bioinformatics is a type of metaphoric lens by which the whole box of biology may be introduced into concentration, admittedly as but imperfect, and understood in a unified method. Reflecting the hugely incomplete current kingdom of the sector, emphasis is put on the underlying basics and acquisitions of a extensive and finished grab of the sphere as an entire.

Bioinformatics is interpreted because the software of data technology to biology, during which it performs a basic and all-pervasive function. This interpretation allows a remarkably unified view of the full box of biology to be taken and as a result bargains an exceptional access aspect into the lifestyles sciences for these for whom biology is unexpected.

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Using some of the teminology already introduced, we may expand on this statement to say that the surprise occasioned by receiving a piece of information is lower if constraint is operating; for example, when spelling out a word it is practically superfluous to say 'u' after 'q'. The constraints affecting the choice of successive words are a manifestation of the syntax of a language. In the next chapter we shall look at other ways in which constraint can operate, but for now we can simply state that whenever constraint is present, the entropy (of the set we are considering, hence of the information received by selecting a member of that set) is lower than it would be for a perfectly random selection from that set.

We have doubtless had the experience of speaking on a very noisy telephone line, or listening to a radio wth very poor reception, and only been able to make out one word in two perhaps, and yet could still understand what was being said. 5, hence it is not surprising that about half the words or symbols may be removed (at random) without overly impairing our ability to receive the original message. According to our previous discussion of the Shannon index, I is additive for independent sources of uncertainty.

This compression process is well-illustrated by an example due to Shannon. Consider a source producing a sequence of letters chosen from among A, B, C and D. Our first guess would be that the three symbols were being chosen with equal probabilities of and hence the average information rate per symbol would be log2 4 = 2 bits per symbol. But suppose that after a i, "Formally this seems rather mysterious. It can be thought of as a kind of noise-induced transition. 4. COMPRESSION 39 long delay we ascertain from the frequencies that the probabilities are, respectively, ~,~, ~ and ~.

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Bioinformatics: An Introduction by Jeremy J. Ramsden (auth.)

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