By William Sabel
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Additional info for Basic Techniques of Preparative Organic Chemistry
G. by glycerol, as described on p. 20. For passing glass rod through a bark cork, water alone may be used as a lubricant, but methylated spirit or glycerol are better. Without lubrication the frictional resistance is so great, especially when passing glass through a rubber bung or tube, that breakage is almost certain to occur; but even when a lubricant is used, there is always the possibility of accidents, and to prevent injury to the hands, they should be protected with a cloth or duster. Smoking Even if smoking in the laboratory is not positively forbidden, it is undesirable, and can be the cause of fire and toxic hazards.
Melting, vaporizing, condensing). Although the practical techniques of heating and cooling are described separately, it should be appreciated that both are examples of heat transfer, and the same general principles are applicable to both. i I FIG. 7. Heat transfer. Consider the system (Fig. 7) of two liquids, A and B, separated by a solid, non-porous partition C. The factors governing heat transfer from A to B are: 58 BASIC TECHNIQUES OF PREPARATIVE ORGANIC CHEMISTRY (1) A must be at a higher temperature than B, and the rate of transfer will increase as the temperature difference increases.
14. The process of fitting glass into a rubber bung or rubber tubing can cause very severe cuts, and special care must be taken. This operation must be done by a pushing, twisting motion, and if precautions are not taken, breakage can cause deep, and often very serious, damage to the hands. Accidents of this kind have been known to cause damage to tendons resulting in permanent injury. Two precautions must be taken. g. by glycerol, as described on p. 20. For passing glass rod through a bark cork, water alone may be used as a lubricant, but methylated spirit or glycerol are better.
Basic Techniques of Preparative Organic Chemistry by William Sabel