By Steven F. Barrett, Daniel J. Pack
This textbook presents training scientists and engineers a primer at the Atmel AVR microcontroller. Our technique is to supply the basic talents to quick wake up and working with this the world over renowned microcontroller. The Atmel ATmega16 is used as a consultant pattern of the AVR line. the data you achieve at the ATmega16 might be simply translated to each different microcontroller within the AVR line. We hide the most subsystems aboard the ATmega16, offering a quick concept part through an outline of the comparable microcontroller subsystem with accompanying and software program to workout the subsytem. In all examples, we use the interval. We finish with a close bankruptcy describing how one can interface the microcontroller to a large choice of enter and output units.
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Additional info for Atmel AVR Microcontroller Primer: Programming and Interfacing
25 V, or 25% of the input range. Suppose you have 20 bits for quantization levels. 54 × 10−5 % of the total range. The discussion we presented simply illustrates that as we increase the available number of quantization levels within a range, the distance between adjacent levels decreases, reducing the quantization error of a sampled signal. As the number grows, the error decreases, making the representation of a sampled analog signal more accurate in the corresponding digital form. The number of bits used for the quantization is directly proportional to the resolution of a system.
At that time, another data byte may be transmitted. 2 Registers. 6. We will discuss each one in turn. SPI Control Register. The SPI Control Register (SPCR) contains the ‘‘on/off’’ switch for the SPI system. It also provides the flexibility for the SPI to be connected to a wide variety of devices with different data formats. It is important that both the SPI master and slave devices be configured for compatible data formats for proper data transmission. The SPCR contains the following bits: • SPI Enable (SPE) is the ‘‘on/off’’ switch for the SPI system.
5. The transmitter is designated the master because it provides the synchronizing clock source between the transmitter and the receiver. The receiver is designated as the slave. A slave is chosen for reception by taking its slave select (SS) line low. When the SS line is taken low, the slave’s shifting capability is enabled. SPI transmission is initiated by loading a data byte into the master configured SPI Data Register (SPDR). At that time, the SPI clock generator provides clock pulses to the master and also to the slave via the SCK pin.
Atmel AVR Microcontroller Primer: Programming and Interfacing by Steven F. Barrett, Daniel J. Pack