By Frank Fahy
We take it with no consideration, yet with out it we perish and if we proceed to abuse it, it might kill us in any case. This attention-grabbing textual content offers an knowing and appreciation of the position that air performs in the environment and its value relating to human lifestyles and know-how. aimed toward those who find themselves scientifically curious yet who've no professional education, it includes no mathematical equations and depends the qualitative descriptions and analogies to give an explanation for the extra technical components of the textual content including uncomplicated domestic experiments to demonstrate more than a few air-based phenomena. Liberally illustrated with a variety of line drawings and images, it recommends extra analyzing should you are stimulated to benefit extra. This booklet bargains useful heritage studying for either physics academics and scholars.
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Extra resources for Air: The Excellent Canopy
This construction can be made for any curved trajectory. Thus, a mass moving along a curved path at constant speed is accelerating towards the centre of curvature of the path and requires the action of a force in that direction to do so. Common examples of this phenomenon are the force exerted by a person whirling a stone on a string in a circle; and the force acting on the passengers by a vehicle that navigates a bend. When a fluid element moves on a curved path there must be a fall of pressure across the flow towards the centre of curvature to provide the accelerating force, explaining why the helium balloon, when subjected to the same pressure gradient as the air, moves to the left when the car takes a left hand bend.
The stagnation point on the forward part of the lower surface remains largely intact and the resulting imbalance of pressures between upper and lower surfaces produces lift and drag. Note that the directions of the flow streamlines approaching and leaving the plate in Fig. 11(b) are different: the vertical component of fluid momentum flux has been changed by the presence of the plate and the effect of viscosity, giving rise to lift. The generation of lift can also be explained in terms of the curvature of the flow streamlines which necessarily implies the presence of a transverse pressure gradient.
2 Shear flow In the case of liquids, viscosity is due principally to attractive forces between molecules; these are not, however, strong enough to enforce the maintenance of shape, as they do in solids. Heating a liquid energises the molecules and makes it more difficult for them to stick together, thereby decreasing the viscosity. But gas molecules are, on average, so far apart, and interact so infrequently, that one would think that air would be effectively non-viscous (inviscid). However, this is not so.
Air: The Excellent Canopy by Frank Fahy